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Dr JOHN RAVEN

Dr Raven

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Dr. Raven's research concerns are with the nature, development, and assessment of competence and the management of public provision, especially the management of the educational system and the arrangements needed for sustainability.

The importance of Dr. Raven's research - published in many books and journal articles - is now widely recognised. He has recently lectured in Japan, China, India, Australia, Hungary, Germany, Sweden, Holland, Poland, Italy, Czechoslovakia, and Russia.

His most striking findings fall into five areas:

1. The nature of competence. He concludes that high-level competencies are heavily value-laden. Further, that political competence is the most important neglected competence in modern society. The development and assessment of such competencies poses serious dilemmas. Nevertheless, the lack of such qualities presents enormous problems for our society and the organisations of which it is composed.

2. The nature and development of the ability to perceive and form orderly judgements. He finds that this ability has been increasing at such a rate that 50% of our grandparents would be certifiable as in need of special education if assessed against today's norms. Yet, strikingly, scores on the Raven Progressive Matrices in most of the countries mentioned above are remarkably similar at any point in time. The first of these results indicates that "intelligence" is a great deal more malleable than most people had thought. The second that the relevant variables are not educational, but possibly have more to do with nutrition and hygiene.

3. The barriers to effective education. He shows that the most important barriers to effective education are far removed from the symptoms of malaise that are so obvious. They have to do with the value-laden nature of the main qualities to be fostered and society's inability to come to terms with the dilemmas which this poses. These problems are exacerbated by the sociological functions which the educational system performs for society.

4. The effective management of the educational system.. His work shows that the prevalent view that the educational system is to be managed through centralised prescription of goals followed by testing to check up on teachers is misguided. Instead it is necessary to create a vibrant and innovative educational system. This requires the creation within the system of the time, the expectations, and the competencies which are required for innovation. And it requires a new interface with the public - new forms of bureaucracy and democracy.

5. The Societal Learning and Management Arrangements Required for Sustainability.. Adam Smith noted that any proposal for public management which assumed "wise men" was doomed because it is impossible to know what the outcome of activities initiated by one set of people on the basis of one set of (necessarily incomplete) information will be as they engage with the effects of actions initiated by others. His market proposal was for a system which experimented and learned without anyone having to know very much.. Having shown that neither market management nor current forms of public management actually operate in the long-term public interest, Dr. Raven brings to bear the results of his work on the management of the educational system to identify the developments in democracy and bureaucracy that are required to move forward.

Dr. Raven is currently devoting as much time as his other commitments will allow to work on the civic beliefs, staff appraisal systems, and institutional arrangements which are required to run modern societies effectively. Much of this is being carried out on a cross-cultural basis. In addition, work is currently in hand to refine the Edinburgh Competency Statement Blanks, a computerised version of the Edinburgh Questionnaires, and a School Improvement Kit. All three attempt to implement more appropriate forms of assessment. In addition the latter allows teachers to assess, and identify ways of improving, the quality of the developmental environments they create in their classrooms and school districts to assess, and identify ways of improving, the climate for innovation within the district and the quality of its interface with the community.

MEASUREMENT-DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

JCRL'S RESEARCH PROGRAMME

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Dr. Raven's publications include:

The Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Tests. This is jointly authored with John Court and others. It comprises 10 sections and is continuously up-dated.

Education Values and Society. This has been described as "the most important book ever written on education".

Competence in Modern Society. This brings together his research on competence and the links between the educational system and society - including the economic and social development of societies.

Parents, Teachers and Children: A Study of an Educational Home Visiting Scheme. The educational home visiting scheme concerned was an adult education program designed to influence mothers' parenting behaviours.As a result, the book deals with the development of a much wider range of personal characteristics than is found in most texts on developmental psychology.

Opening the Primary Classroom. This was a study of schools' use of the environment to foster high-level competencies.

The Tragic Illusion: Educational Testing. This discusses the problems inherent in current forms of educational assessment and outlines the developments that are needed.

Managing Education for Effective Schooling: The Most Important Problem is to Come to Terms with Values. This book presents a succinct summary of Dr. Raven's research into the goals of education, their achievement, the unsuspected barriers to their achievement, and the, often surprising, steps which need to be taken to overcome those barriers.

The New Wealth of Nations: A New Enquiry into the Nature and Origins of the Wealth of Nations and the Societal Learning Arrangements Required for Sustainability. This has been described as "The most important book since Smith's Wealth of Nations and possibly since Aristotle laid the foundations for our current understandings of democracy".

Competence in the Learning Society: Co-edited with John Stephenson, this book contains chapters by some 20 authors who have carried out research in what might be called the McClelland competency tradition, but extends the discussion to review the competencies required to bring about the societal changes that are required if we are to bring about the changes that are required if our species is to survive.

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Books by John Raven

Articles By John Raven

Other Publications

BOOKS by JOHN RAVEN

Raven, J., & Stephenson, J. (Eds.). (2001, in press). Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (1995). The New Wealth of Nations: A New Enquiry into the Nature and Origins of the Wealth of Nations. New York: Royal Fireworks Press; Sudbury, Suffolk: Bloomfield Books.

Raven, J. (1994). Managing Education for Effective Schooling: The Most Important Problem is to Come to Terms with Values. New York: Trillium Press; Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press.

Raven, J. (1991). The Tragic Illusion: Educational Testing. New York: Trillium Press; Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press.

Raven, J., Johnstone, J. and Varley, T. (1985). Opening the Primary Classroom. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education.

Raven, J. (1984). Competence in Modern Society: Its Identification, Development and Release. Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press.

Raven, J. and Varley, T. (1984). Some classrooms and their effects: A study of the feasibility of measuring some of the broader outcomes of education. Collected Original Resources in Education, 8(1), F4 G6.

Varley, T. and Raven, J. (1983). A survey of the extent and nature of out-of-school visits by primary schools in Lothian and Fife Regions. Collected Original Resources in Education, 17(2), F4D13.

Raven, J. and Litton, F. (1982). Aspects of civics education in Ireland. Collected Original Resources in Education, 6(2), F4E7.

Raven, J. (1980). Parents, Teachers and Children: An Evaluation of an Educational Home Visiting Programme. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education. Distributed in North America by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto.

Raven, J. (1977). Education, Values and Society: The Objectives of Education and the Nature and Development of Competence. Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press.

Raven, J. and Whelan, C.T. (1976). Irish adults' perceptions of their civic institutions. In J. Raven, C.T. Whelan, P.A. Pfretzschner and D.M. Borock, Political Culture in Ireland. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration.

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ARTICLES by JOHN RAVEN

Prieler, J. and Raven, J. (2001, in press). Article on the measurement of change.

Raven, J. paper from PIE conference. Also from problems of participation conference.

Raven, J. (2001). Learning societies, learning organisations, and learning: Their implications for competence, its development, and its assessment (Chapter 1). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). The pernicious effects of incompetence on society, education, and assessment (Chapter 6). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). The McBer Competency Framework (Chapter 9). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). Issues raised by the studies of competence (Chapter 12). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). The McClelland/McBer Competency Models (Chapter 15). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). The conceptualisation of competence (Chapter 17). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). Facilitating the development of competence (Chapter 18). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). Some barriers to the introduction of competency-oriented education (Chapter 23). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). The assessment of competence (Chapter 28). In J. Raven & J. Stephenson (Eds.), Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Raven, J. (2001). Psychologists and Sustainability. The American Psychologist. 56 455-457.

Raven, J. & Navrotsky, V. (2000). The Development and Use of Maps of Socio-Cybernetic Systems to Improve Educational and Social Policy, with Particular Reference to Sustainability. Paper presented to a meeting of Research Committee 51 of the International Sociological Association held in Panticosa.

Raven, J. (2000). Ethical dilemmas. The Psychologist, 13, 404-406.

Raven, J. (2000). Rethinking democracy. The Good Society (Journal of the Committee on the Political Economy of the Good Society [PEGS]) 9(3), 31­37 (with responses from Robert E. Lane and William Ophuls, 38-42).

Raven, J. (2000). The Raven's Progressive Matrices: Change and stability over culture and time. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 1­48.

McKinzey, R. K., Podd, M. H., Krehbiel, M. A. and Raven, J. (1999). Detection of malingering on the Raven Progressive Matrices: A cross-validation. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 435­439.

Raven, J. (1999). The methodology needed to solve complex social problems. In J. De Tombe and E.A. Stuhler (Eds.), Complex Problem Solving: Methodological Support for Social Policy Making. Munchen, Germany: Rainer Hampp Verlag.

Raven, J. (1997). Can we discuss policy if nothing is what it seems to be? Journal for Mental Changes, III(1), 85­103.

Raven, J. (1997). Educational research, ethics and the BPS. Starter paper and peer reviews by P. Mortimore, J. Demetre, R. Stainthope, Y. Reynolds and G. Lindsay. Education Section Review, 21(2), 3­26.

Raven, J. (1995). The universities, the development of competence and public policy. Capability, 1(3), 3-6.

Raven, J. (1995). Managing society: The past belonged to economists: The future belongs to psychologists. Journal of Mental Changes, 1(2), 7­46.

Raven, J. and Sime, J. (1994). The Computerised Edinburgh Questionnaires. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press.

Raven, J. (1994). School Improvement Kit: Pilot Version. Edinburgh: Competency Motivation Project.

Raven, J. (1992). Managing education for talent development. In F.J. Monks, M.W. Katzko and H.W. van Boxtel (Eds.), Education of the Gifted in Europe: Theoretical and Research Issues. (Report of the Educational Research Workshop held in Nijmegen, July 1991, Part A: Volume 28.) Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Raven, J. (1992). A model of competence, motivation, and behavior and a paradigm for assessment. In H. Berlak, F.M. Newmann, E. Adams, D.A. Archbald, T. Burgess, J. Raven and T.A. Romberg, Toward a New Science of Educational Testing and Assessment. Albany NY: SUNY Press.

Raven, J. (1991). The wider goals of education: Beyond the 3Rs. Educational Forum, 55(4), Summer, 343-363.

Raven, J. (1990). The barriers to achieving the wider goals of general education. British Educational Research Journal, 16(3), 273-296.

Raven, J. (1990). Some Unexpected Implications of Research into the Nature, Development, and Assessment of Human Resources. Starter Paper and Response: Open Dialogue. Education Section Review, July.

Raven, J. (1989). Questionable assumptions in test construction. Bulletin of the International Test Commission, Nos.28 & 29, 67-95.

Raven, J. (1989). Parents, education and schooling. In C. Desforges (Ed.), British Journal of Educational Psychology, Monograph Series No.4, Special Issue on Early Childhood Education (47-67).

Raven, J. (1989). Equity in diversity: The problems posed by values - and their resolution. In F. Macleod (Ed.), Families and Schools: Issues in Accountability and Parent Power. Brighton, England: Falmer Press.

Raven, J. (1989). Democracy, bureaucracy and the psychologist. The Psychologist, 2(11), November, 458-466.

Raven, J. (1988). Toward measures of high-level competencies: A re-examination of McClelland's distinction between needs and values. Human Relations, 41, 281-294.

Raven, J. (1988). The assessment of competencies. In H.D. Black and W.B. Dockrell (Eds.), New Developments in Educational Assessment: British Journal of Educational Psychology, Monograph Series No.3, 98-126.

Raven, J. (1988). School based evaluation and professional research. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 14, 176-191.

Raven, J. (1988). Developing the talents and competencies of all our children. Gifted International, 5, 8-40.

Raven, J. (1988). Choice in a modern economy: New concepts of democracy and bureaucracy. In S. Maital (Ed.), Applied Behavioural Economics, Volume II. Brighton, England: Wheatsheaf.

Raven, J. (1987). Values, diversity and cognitive development. Teachers College Record, 89, 21-38.

Raven, J. (1987). The crisis in education. New Era, 68(2), 38-44.

Raven, J. (1987). Tell Them About Teacher Training. Collected Original Resources in Education, 11, F3, F13.

Raven, J. (1987). Policy research. New Horizons, 28, November, 31-48.

Raven, J. (1987). Learning to Teach in Primary Schools: Some Reflections. Collected Original Resources in Education, 11, F3, D07.

Raven, J. (1986). Fostering competence. In T. Burgess (Ed.), Education for Capability. London: NFER-Nelson.

Raven, J. (1986). A nation really at risk: A review of Goodlad's "A Place Called School". Higher Education Review, 18, 65-79.

Raven, J. (1985). The institutional framework required for, and process of, educational evaluation: Some lessons from three case studies. In B. Searle (Ed.), Evaluation in World Bank Education Projects: Lessons from Three Case Studies. Washington, DC: The World Bank, Education and Training Council for Research in Education.

Raven, J. (1984). What is language teaching? New Horizons, 25, 82-90.

Raven, J. (1984). The role of the psychologist in formulating, administering and evaluating policies associated with economic and social development in western society. Journal of Economic Psychology, 5, 1-16.

Raven, J. (1984). The evaluation and improvement of provision for general education. In M. Skilbeck (Ed.), Evaluating the Curriculum in the Eighties. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Raven, J. (1984). Some limitations of the standards. Evaluation and Program Planning, 7, 363-370.

Raven, J. (1984). Some barriers to educational innovation from outside the school system. Teachers College Record, 85(3), 431-443.

Raven, J. (1984). Quality of life, the development of competence, and higher education. Higher Education, 13, 393-404.

Raven, J. (1984). A public servant's dilemma. In W.B. Dockrell (Ed.), An Attitude of Mind. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education.

Raven, J. and Varley, T. (1984). Some classrooms and their effects: A study of the feasibility of measuring some of the broader outcomes of education. Collected Original Resources in Education, 8(1), F4 G6.

Raven, J. (1983). Towards new concepts and institutions in modern society. Universities Quarterly, 37, 100-118.

Raven, J. (1983). The relationship between educational institutions and society with particular reference to the role of assessment. International Review of Applied Psychology, 32(4), 249-274.

Raven, J. (1983). The Edinburgh Questionnaires: A Cluster of Questionnaires for use in Organisational Development and in Staff Guidance, Placement and Development. Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press.

Raven, J. (1983). Research in modern universities. Higher Education Review, 15, 80-84.

Varley, T. and Raven, J. (1983). A survey of the extent and nature of out-of-school visits by primary schools in Lothian and Fife Regions. Collected Original Resources in Education, 17(2), F4D13.

Raven, J. (1982). Public policy in a changed society. Higher Education Review, 14, 80-89.

Raven, J. (1982). Language in its social context and the role of educational home visiting. In A. Davies (Ed.), Language and Learning in Home and School. London: SSRC/ Heinemann.

Raven, J. (1982). Educational home visiting and the growth of competence and confidence in adults and children. Curriculum Inquiry, 12, 87-105.

Raven, J. (1982). Education and the competencies required in modern society. Higher Education Review, 15, 47-57.

Raven, J. (1982). Broadening the base of educational assessment. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 35, 342-344.

Raven, J. and Litton, F. (1982). Aspects of civics education in Ireland. Collected Original Resources in Education, 6(2), F4E7.

Raven, J. (1981). Toward an understanding of social behaviour in Ireland. International Review of Applied Psychology, 30, 429-450.

Raven, J. (1981). Principles governing the employment of tests. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 34, 400.

Raven, J. (1980). The most important problem in education is to come to terms with values. Oxford Review of Education, 7, 253-72.

Raven, J. (1980). Teetering on the brink of a totalitarian society? New Universities Quarterly, 34, 370-82.

Raven, J. (1980). Intervention as interference. Scottish Educational Review, 12, 120-130.

Raven, J. (1977). Toward a conceptual framework for thinking about human resources: Their assessment, development and consequences. Personnel Review, 6, 21-29.

Raven, J. (1977). School rejection and its amelioration. Educational Research, 20, 3-9.

Raven, J. (1977). On the components of competence and their development in education. Teachers College Record, 78, 457-475.

Raven, J. (1977). Government policy and social psychologists. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 30, 33-39.

Raven, J. and Whelan, C.T. (1976). Irish adults' perceptions of their civic institutions. In J. Raven, C.T. Whelan, P.A. Pfretzschner and D.M. Borock, Political Culture in Ireland. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration.

Raven, J. (1975). The role of social research in modern society. Administration, 23, 225-246.

Raven, J., Molloy, E. and Corcoran, R. (1972). Toward a questionnaire measure of achievement motivation. Human Relations, 25, 469­492.

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Other Related Material

Necrologio, John C. Raven (1902­1970), Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, Agosto-Occobre-Dicembre, 1970, 261­263.

John Carlyle Raven, 1902­1970, An assessment by Ralph Hetherington. Dyslexia, 4(1), March, 1998, 50­52.

Watt, D. C. (1998). Lionel Penrose, F. R. S. (1898­1972) and eugenics, Part One. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 52(1), 137­151.

Watt, D. C. (1998). Lionel Penrose, F. R. S. (1898­1972) and eugenics, Part Two. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 52(2), 339­354.

Watt, D. C. (1998). Lionel Penrose, F. R. S. (1898­1972): Psychiatrist and professor of human genetics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 458­461.

Raven, J. (1997). Scotland's greatest psychologist: J. C. Raven and contemporary psychology. Bulletin (Newsletter of the Scottish Branch of the British Psychological Society), June, 12­17.

Hetherington, R. (1969). Twenty years of psychology at the Crichton Royal, Dumfries: A personal account. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 22, 310­306.

Hetherington, R. (1997). Scotland's greatest psychologist: J. C. Raven and contemporary psychology. Bulletin (Newsletter of the Scottish Branch of the British Psychological Society), June, 18­21.

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