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TO THE VOCABULARY SCALES
tests are often misleadingly described as tests of intelligence
when, in fact, they sample only certain aspects of intellectual
functioning. The reason for using vocabulary scales in
conjunction with the Progressive Matrices is that the
two are complementary. While the Progressive Matrices
test primarily for eductive ability, vocabulary tests
measure reproductive ability or acquired information.
Raven and Walshaws, providing a rationale for the vocabulary
tests described below, said:
only justification for constructing scales in which vocabulary
tests are indiscriminately combined with other tests appears
to be that theoretically, it is impossible to design a
test which is purely eductive or purely reproductive in
nature Nevertheless we can construct tests in such a way
that with the subjects for whom they are intended, the
process to be examined is the one and only process lying
nearly balanced between possibility and impossibility
of occurrence. Just as we can construct tests which are
mainly eductive in nature, so also we can construct tests
in which the eductive processes at the time of testing
are so simple and general that the recall of information,
resulting from intellectual activity in the past, is the
one and only decisive process: and there is every advantage
in keeping the results of such a test distinct from the
results of a test in which eductive activity at the time
of the test is decisive."
of the research studies employing the Progressive Matrices
have also featured a vocabulary test In some cases the
Wechsler Vocabulary Scale has been used. Many studies
have used the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale despite the failure
of many test agencies outside the UK to market the test.
The Raven's Vocabulary Scales have the advantage over
subscales of other tests in that they cater for different
levels of ability, and are available in multiple-choice
or open-ended form, in oral or written form.
forms of the Scales
with the Progressive Matrices, there is a basic version
of the Vocabulary test from which a number of other options
derive. The basic form is the open-ended version of the
Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale, made up of 88 words divided
into two parallel sets of 44 words arranged in ascending
order of difficulty.
this the Junior and Senior versions of the test have been
derived. In the former, the 22 most difficult words have
been omitted in order to avoid confronting chidren with
too many words they do not know. In the latter, the 20
easiest words have been omitted. In both of these, half
of the words are presented in open-ended format and half
in multiple-choice format. It has been possible to develop
parallel forms of the tests in the same fashion that the
CPM was derived from the SPM by removing the harder items
and adding easier ones, a similar derivative has been
prepared for the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale.
vs. Open-ended versions;
Multiple-choice sections of the test are intended to measure
reproductive ability with the minimum involvment of eductive
activity. Whilst this approach has been much commended
it, and has been used by others, it also has some inherent
disadvantages. In particular, the multiple-choice approach
does not allow qualitative distinctions, so that the scores
attenuate towards the upper end of the ability range.
The Open-ended of Definitions approach allows a more detailed
qualitative appraisal of word usage and knowledge.
OF THE VOCABULARY SCALES:
words in the Vocabulary Scales were systematically sampled
from the dictionary, arranged in order of difficulty and
then selected in such a way as to yield approximately
equal increments in difficulty.
words known only to subsets of the population were eliminated.
distracters for the multiple-choice sections were chosen
from the wrong answers given in response to the Open-Ended
form and supplemented by words of similar difficulty.
revealed that it was unsatisfactory to give double marks
for good definitions, or half marks for doubtful explanations.
In a similar way it was established that it was best to
arrange the options from which a choice had to be made
in the multiple-choice sections of the test in groups
of six below the stimulus word, and not, for example,
at the side.
order of presentation of the words was revised in 1976
and 1980. In the course of the American standardisation
carried out between 1984 and 1988, two words on the Mill
Hill Vocabulary Scale, and one on the Crichton Vocabulary
Scale, were changed to suit American usage.
tests have advantages going well beyond the assessment
of reproductive ability. They can, for exam-ple, be used
in the study of verbal dysfunction.
capitalise on these advantages, a "Short Form"
of the Scale was developed in which people were asked
to use every fifth word in the original scale in a sentence
as well as to explain its meaning. Through a cyclical
process which simultaneously led to the formulation of
a theory identifying the main Co-ordinates of Conduct,
a classification was developed of what word usage can
reveal about disintegration of intention, attention, order,
and values. This was in turn used to compare and contrast
the nature of the differential thought disorders found
in different types of mental illness. This framework and
its experimental uses are fully described in the MHV Section
of the Manual.
Hill vocabulary Test
Crichton vocabulary Test
Hill vocabulary Test
versions of the Mill Hill vocabulary Scale are
available. These are:
The MHV Open-Ended, or Definitions, Form: This
consists of all 88 words in open-ended format.
It is not available in Junior or Senior forms,
or in parallel forms.
MHV, Forms 1 and 2, Junior: In the Junior version
the 22 most difficult words have been omitted.
Half the words are presented in open-ended format
and half in multiple-choice format. On Form 1,
the first half of the test (Set A) is in open-ended
format and the second half (Set B) in multiple-choice
format. On Form 2, Set A is presented in multiple-choice
format and Set B in open response format.
Junior forms are designed for respondents aged
between 11 and 14 and may be administered either
individually or to groups. In general, increments
of about three words per year can be expected.
MHV, Forms 1 and 2, Senior: In the Senior versions,
the 20 easiest words have been omitted. Once again,
on Form 1, the first half of the test (Set A)
is in open-ended format and the second half (Set
B) in multiple-choice format. On Form 2, the order
is reversed. Forms 1 and 2, Senior and Junior,
are the most widely used forms of the test.
it may be neccessary to use only the open-response
or multiple-choice halves of the Junior or Senior
tests. Under these circumstances it is possible
to estimate the total score which would be expected
on the combined test from the normative tables
MHV, All-Multiple-Choice Junior and Senior Forms:
Both of these are available in the USA. No Junior
All-Multiple-Choice version is avaiable in the
UK, where the Senior Form has been produced in
Easy-Score format for use with the Advanced Progressive
MHV, Short Form: This can be used (a) to obtain
a brief assessment of the respondent's ability
to communicate, or (b) to collect information
to aid the qualitative analysis of responses,
more detailed information on word usage, thought
disorder, and the use of language to organise
experience, future plans, and current activities.
It consists of every fifth word in the original
versionof the MHV Scale, and it is administered
orally to allow additional probing. Those taking
the test are asked to use each word in a sentence
in addition to defining it. Such qualitative information
can be of particular relevance in clinical assessments.
the Crichton Vocabulary Scale (CVS) 40 new words
have been prepared to parallel the 40 easiest
words from the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale, and
the more difficult words have been ommited. It
is intended for use with children up to 11 years
of age, and with older, low-scoring, people. The
test is designed to be given orally. If the person
being tested functions at the upper end of the
scale, he or she can progress directly from the
first half of the CVS to the Mill Hill Vocabulary