to the tests:
Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales were developed
to assess, as straightforwardly and as accurately as possible,
the two main components of what most psychologists have
to come to refer to as "General Intelligence"
together, the tests provide more useful information more
quickly than do most full -length "Intelligence"
tests. Used by themselves, Raven's Progressive Matrices
tests yield better information on people's ability to
forge new, largely non-verbal, insights than do the relevant
subscales of multi-component tests. The Vocabulary tests
complement this by providing a quick and accurate assessment
of the familiarity with a culture's store of explicit
tests are quick and easy to administer, attractive to
those taking them, and display high construct validity:
they are among the best predictors of performance at tasks
in which the abilities tested are required. Thus they
can be employed both as quick and inexpensive screening
tests to identify those most likely to possess high-level
talents which are to be sought through more time consuming
and expensive assessment procedures, and as an integral
part of such procedures. Used in the second way they allow
those concerned to concentrate on the assessment of qualities
which are harder to identify.
Matrices scores are relatively uncontaminated by linguistic
background. The tests are therefore invaluable in conditions,
such as those prevailing in Europe.
Raven's Progressive Matrices are widely used in psychological
research, providing the industry standard against which
other tests are evaluated.
and Forms of the tests:
Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) tests are made up of
a series of diagrammatic puzzles exhibiting serial change
in two directions simultaneously. Each puzzle has a piece
missing, which the person taking the test is required
to find. The name of the test reflects the possibility
of formulating the puzzles in the form of mathematical
matrices. Indeed, the test is particularly good at predicting
success in those occupations such as science and computer
programming, which involve forms of mathematical competence.
The term "Progressive" Matrices is used because
the items are arranged so that the person taking the test
is gradually absorbed into the particular frame of thought
needed for their solution. He or she is required to perceive
and attend to particular features in the designs, and
the test therefore assesses the ability to learn from
experience. Because training in the method of thought
is built into the test, coaching has less effect on RPM
scores than it does on many other tests. For the same
reason the effects of cultural disadvantage are reduced.
Mill Hill Vocabulary test, through an assessment of the
respondent's knowledge of the meaning of the words, measures
familiarity and facility with a culture's store of verbalised
Raven tests are available at a range of difficulty levels,
and special versions exist for certain clinical and research
Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) tests are available
in Standard, Coloured, and Advanced forms. The Raven's
Vocabulary scales are available as the Crichton Vocabulary
Scale (CVS), the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale, JUNIOR forms,
and the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale, SENIOR forms.
Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and the SENIOR forms
of the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale (MHV) were prepared
to differentiate between people of superior intellectual
ability. They can be used to select staff for high-level
technical or managerial positions, and to select students
for advanced scientific or technical studies.
Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and the JUNIOR versions
of the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale (MHV) are suitable for
general population. They can be used in the selection
of non-managerial staff.
Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Crichton Vocabulary
Scale (CVS) are suitable for young children and for persons
of limited intellectual ability.
Advanced Progressive Matrices has two components. Set
I comprises a short set of 12 items. The main test. Set
II, consists of 36 items. Set I can be used to obtain
a quick and approximate indication of overall ability,
to help decide whether Set II of the APM or the SPM should
be administered, and to provide training in the method
of thought needed to tackle Set II effectively. If it
is to be used for the second purpose, those who are later
to be tested on Set II can be given a copy of Set I to
take home for practice.
to the tests:
Raven's Progressive Matrices were developed to measure
the two components of g (loosely, "General Intelligence")
initially identified by Spearman
in the early twenties. These are technically known as
eductive and reproductive ability. Although these terms
are not part of our everyday vocabulary, their use will
both make for clarity of discussion and help to prevent
misapplication of the tests and misinterpretation of the
ability refers to the ability to make meaning out of confusion;
the ability to perceive - and especially the ability to
perceive new patterns and relationships; the ability to
forge (largely non-verbal) constructs which make it easy
to handle complexity.
ability refers to the ability to call to mind, and utilise,
a culture's store of explicit, largely verbal, information.
the fact that they often work closely together these two
abilities are, psychologically, very different: those
familiar with the work of Cattell should note that one
is not a "crystallised" form of the other.
occupational settings it is important to differentiate
between eductive and reproductive abilities: a facility
with words does not necessarily imply the ability to forge
new insights, and people good at inventing new ways of
thinking abut things and handling changing situations
are not necessarily good at verbalising their insights.
Similarly, the ability to answer close up verbal questions
as a result of taking courses does not necessarily lead
to improved performance. These points can be illustrated
from the work of Broadbent and Aston, who found that those
best able to handle a complex computer simulation with
many feedback loops were not necessarily able to say how
they did it. Furthermore, verbal instruction, while it
had a marked effect on behaviour, did not lead to improved
performance. Another study illustrating the point is that
of Ingleton, who found that, while managers with high
vocabulary test scores performed well in unchanged conditions,
it tended to be those with high RPM scores who were able
to prevent their companies making huge financial losses
in the changed conditions of the 1970's oil price rise.